Design Research Approach in Developing Technology-Mediated Learning Modules in Practical Mathematics for Technical Vocational Education
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Technical vocational education has become one of the four major tracks in the K to 12 curriculum in the Philippines (Ocampo, 2014). However, online learning technologies are not yet fully integrated into the core technicalvocational courses of this curriculum. Using the design research model of Mckenney and Reeves (2013) with two iterations, this study developed a set of technology-mediated learning modules in practical mathematics for the technical-vocational track of the K to 12 curriculum. From three researcher-made instruments, data were gathered from randomly selected samples from a private sectarian college. Results indicate that the design research modules were characterized by the following design principles: a) small-group collaborative learning through synchronous and asynchronous discussions based on simplified authentic problem-based tasks; b) online teaching roles as a facilitator, feedback giver, learning community mentor, course designer, and manager; c) use of Facebook and its online group chat; d) use of multimedia approach, behavioral objectives, simple language, and exercises in the presentation of the modules; and e) student context based on job skills specialization, motivation and interest in practical mathematics, familiarity with information and communication technology, and socio-economic status. Using the Mann-Whitney test at 0.05 significance level, the overall mean score of the second iteration group is significantly higher than the overall mean score of the first iteration group. This indicates that the technology-mediated learning modules facilitated the learning of practical mathematics concepts. This study recommends the design research approach because its iteration process has validated and put together effective design principles for online teaching and learning of practical mathematics. Further, it has involved both students and the teacher in developing these modules that yielded better student learning outcomes.